183010, Murmansk, Khalturin St., 15
184209 , Apatity, Murmansk region, Fersman St., 14
Deputy director on scientific work:
Acting as deputy director on scientific work:
Deputy director on common matters:
The institute was established and included in the Kola Branch of the USSR AS in 1960. It was founded on basis of several scientific stations, which carried out geophysical researches on the Kola Peninsula since thirties. An outstanding geophysicist S.I. Isaev was an organizer and the first director of the institute. The major goals of the institute, which determined its location, included investigation of the Earth magnetism, upper polar atmosphere, cosmic rays, auroras and radiopropagation.
The institute assumed the leadership among the scientific bodies involved in the near-Earth space investigation. The institute took part in organization and carrying out of the first observations of magnetic disturbances in conjugate points Arkhangelsk - Kergelen, participated in the experiment "Arax" on the artificial auroras generation, carried out observations at Antarctic stations and in the Arctic, on the archipelagoes Schpitsbergen and Franz-Josef Land. Getmantsev effect was discovered in 1980, it presents the disturbance of electromagnetic waves by ionospheric currents under the influence of shortwave radiation. Since 1974 to 1996 the institute participated in international balloon experiments investigating magnetospheric disturbances and atmospheric structure. The institute represents head organization carrying out auroral observations and it includes an international data center WDC-B2 on investigation of northern lights. Annual seminar "Physics of auroral phenomena" has been given in Apatity for 20 years; its program includes a wide range of issues on physics of magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere; geophysics of Russia and near foreign countries partake in the seminar.
The researches of the Earth magnetosphere structure and dynamics, physical processes of magnetospheric substorm, effects of particle intrusions into polar areas and study of low-frequency modes in the Earth magnetosphere rank as the most important activities of the institute. Three geophysical observatories of the institute carry out permanent measurements of magnetic field variations and observations of northern lights. The magnetic stations with digital processing, worked up at the institute, are employed at the work. The received data are informed to the database of an international magnetic network IMAGE.
The institute worked out high-sensitivity TV cameras for night airglows registration. Due to employment of numeralization and image processing techniques, fine effects of auroral dynamics can be discovered and investigated and also fractal characteristics of the light brightness space distribution were found out.
A unique method of ionospheric research - the radio-tomography method was suggested and developed by the institute (boss - director of the institute E.D. Tereschenko, Dr.Sc. (Phys. - Math.), the work won the State prize in 1998). The method allowed to reproduce the electronic density bivariate distribution in ionosphere. Due to combined usage of radio-tomographical chain and optical registration of lights by concurrently employed scanning photometers, the bivariate distribution of volumetric atmospheric exitance and electronic density distribution in the researched areas can be received.
Permanent observations at the station of cosmic rays in Apatity, an important part of the world network, have been underway for over 30 years. The permanent observations serve as a basis for relativist proton acceleration in solar flares during three cycles of solar activity. After upgrading of registering equipment at the station, a high time resolution was achieved and the influence of heterogeneities in solar wind on solar cosmic rays distribution was investigated. Today the neutron monitoring data can be found in Internet in real time and are used for "cosmic weather" forecasting.
The work is underway on computational modeling of physico-chemical processes in upper atmosphere, modeling of global distribution of magnetic field in near-Earth space, research of interaction of electronic and proton hydrogen beams with atmospheric gases. Since 1996 researches of physico-chemical and dynamical processes in the Arctic atmosphere have been carried out. For the first time in the history of Russian Arctic the integrated measurements of ozone and nitric oxides in near-Earth space under different conditions of atmosphere illumination by the Sun and different meteorological conditions were fulfilled. A correlation was established between the statistics of total ozone fields above the Northern Europe and regional characteristics of atmospheric circulation and photochemical processes in stratosphere. The research of helium-geophysical factors impact on human health began.
The institute actively cooperates with foreign scientific bodies. Within the framework of international cooperation in the Barents Region the Institute suggested a project of geophysical monitoring in the Arctic zone, providing for observations on the Spitzbergen archipelago. Integrated measurements of ionospheric operation factors, upper atmosphere illumination characteristics and magnetic field variations in high-latitudes provide with new data on the cooperating components in the system: solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere.
LINES OF INVESTIGATION
STRCTURE AND STAFF
SECTOR OF COSMIC RAYS No. 101 (Apatity)
DEPARTMENT OF MAGNETOSPERIC RESEARCHES No. 200 (Apatity)
LABORATORY OF NORTHERN LIGHTS No.201 (Apatity)
LABORATORY OFMAGNETOSPHERIC-IONOSPHERIC CONNECTIONS No.202 Apatity
SECTOR OF THEORETICAL RESEARCHES No. 203 (Apatity)
DEPARTMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL GEOPHYSICS No. 300 (Apatity)
SECTOR OF EXPERIMENTAL DIAGNOSTICS No. 301 (Apatity)
SECTOR OF OPTICAL METHODS No. 302 (Apatity)
LABORATORY OF GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS No. 303
GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY LOVOZERO
GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY LOPARSKAYA
LABORATORY OF RADIOGRAPHY No. 401 (Murmansk)
SECTOR OF RADIOPHYSICAL RESEARCHES OF LOWER IONOSPHERE No.402 (Murmansk)
LABORATORY OF ARCTIC ATMOSPHERE No.501 (Apatity)
SECTOR OF COMPUTATIONAL EXPERIMENT No. 503 (Apatity)